Thursday, April 30, 2009

On thursday I did my presentation on the idea of convergence. I started out with the definition, the integration of multiple medias such as phones, computers, radio and tv. Along with a few examples of where we have recently seen new media and convergence such as businesses, schools, phones and computers.

I then used the iPhone as one of my examples. The iPhone combines internet, radio, and many other applications all on this one device. I found this to be a great example because not only is it recent where many students can relate to its uses but it does represent the six characteristics we went over in class.

Next I spoke of blogging and how it has become a new "new" media. Twitter has become a new fad in a past year or so. I chose this as new media because you are able to access twitter through your computer and phone or even email. You personal updates can be made at any time of the day through any device you choose. Many people use it for marketing, social or even for stocks. The president even uses it!

After those two examples I chose to use a product called "bacon salt" as an example of how quickly new media has taken part in everyday peoples lives. Two men, came up with this product and decided it would be great to get it out there and maybe make a profit out of it. They chose different medias to present themselves, facebook, myspace, twitter, youtube anything and everything basically. Not only did new media increase their sales but it also shows how audience generated many of these "new" medias have become.

I left with two discussion questions on where do we think new media will be in the next 5 years and do you see schools depending more on new media for their teachings?

thanks and gig em;
lindsey moehlig

Wednesday, April 29, 2009

Online Dating

On April 24, 2009, I talked about the topic, What's new in new media? I wanted to focus on the six characteristics of media in order to really figure out what is new in media.

The 6 Characteristics of Media
A. Asynchronous Media
B. Audience Generated Media
C. Digital Media
D. Narrowcasting
E. Interactivity
F. Multi-Media Forms

With these six characteristics, I thought about about what would be new in media but would also represent these six characteristics. I thought online dating would fit in the criteria. Its new in media because it is a new way to meet people and start relationships or friendships. It also represents the six characteristics. When it came to online dating, I looked at a lot of sites but I chose eHarmony to focus my case study around. eHarmony has a Compatibility Matching System that helps match people together. Dr. Neil Clark Warren, who is the founder, has 35 years of experience. He has been a marriage counselor for 35 years. He has researched what makes marriages succeed and fail. Everyone is matched up based on the 29 Dimensions of Compatibility. That includes, just to name a few, adaptability, curiosity, intellect, values, beliefs, spirituality, relationship skills like conflict resolution.
A eHarmony commercial-ž

What does Eharmony do?

Compatibility Matching System, which is a system that compares surveys and places then into different subdivisions. Surveys are used to determine if you are compatible according to the 29 Dimensions of Compatibility. Because of this system, eHarmony is the most expensive dating online dating service. Once approved, profiles are set up so your matches will be able to see you.
Then love is found! Because of its high-tech match making system and it s capability to network to so many people, I feel like like that makes it new in new media.

How does it represent the six characteristics of new media?
eHarmony is a form of asynchronous media because it sends out e-mails to its clients when they have found them a match.
It is audience generated because it gives the client what they want based on compatibility and what they want in a mate.
it is digital because everything is digitized, from the profiles to the compatibility computer system.
It is Narrowcasting because it targets a particular audience, singles looking for love!
It represents Interactivity because it allows the clients to create their own profile and become a big part in their matchmaking.
It represents Multi-Media Forms by using text, audio, images, and video. It allows the clients to use all these different multi-media forms, which include the survey, profile, and connecting with their match.

I believe that online dating will grow because it allows people to meet their possible soul mate with just a click of a button. It cuts out all courtship and allows someone to do the work for them.

Monday, April 27, 2009

New Media in Politics Today

New Media in Politics Today

On last Thursday during class I presented my case study on how in politics today are using New Media drastically in every aspect. In the past presidential election of 2008, we saw both John McCain as well as Barak Obama use many instances of media in their campaign to help with the election. McCain was just behind Obama in everything he did with trying to win the election using new media. The use of media in Presidential Elections goes all the way back to when John F. Kennedy did fireside chats over the radio. After his chats, presidential candidates began to use the TV for commercials as well as presidential debates.

The new President, Obama, uses many instances of new media since he has been in office. One thing that Obama has used is His Weekly Radio Address is posted on the website so that members of society can have an instant access to it. An example of Obama’s Weekly Radio Address is Obama also has created a new website called Organizing for America. This new website has an entire staff dedicated to keep it up. Here is a link to Obama’s Organizing for America website. Obama has also made himself available on popular social networking sites such as,,, as well as many others. Obama puts himself on so many forms of new media so that he is able to get himself out there to many people.

The use of new media in further elections is growing rapidly day by day. Next time that there is a presidential election, there will be something bigger, better, and new out there for them to use. Other presidential candidates as well as presidents will follow in Obama’s footsteps in future elections.

During the discussion, the class seemed to think it was a good idea for Obama to put himself out there on the internet more. People said since they are always on their iPhones that the felt they saw a lot more on the Presidential Election of 2008.

So what is so new about new media? The media used in the presidential elections what not exactly new. Obama just went to the next level by making himself a facebook account for example so that he can stay connected with everyone. By having his name and face out there, people will have a better chance to vote for him or listen to him. Media today is more audience generated. Obama made it this way so he can interact with his audience more so that they will feel like he is connecting with them. Obama uses this through the use of blogs on his website, Organizing for America. Another type of new media that Obama uses is multimedia forms. There are many different types of media that he uses to get to his audience, such as TV, Internet, etc. The content can be personalized to individuals to reach a higher audience. By using new media in politics, presidents are better able to connect with the people as well as reach different types of audiences through different types of media.

Tuesday, April 21, 2009

The Kingsbury Committment and Telecommunications: Affordable Service to All

What was the Kingsbury Commitment?
It was a 1913 compromise between Congress and AT&T in which AT&T agreed to:
  • sell off its $30 million in Western Union Stock,
  • not aquire any other independent companies,
  • allow independents access to its long-distance lines, and
  • provide quality service to all
It was enacted formally into law by Congress in the Graham Act of 1921.

Without this compromise, many scholars believe that the Bell System might have been broken up, or even nationalized.

Historical Impact

Government Regulated Monopolies
The Kingsbury Commitment was viewed by some as a government vote for monopolies becasue it did not restrict AT&T from acquiring new telephone systems, only that an equal number be sold for each new system purchased. This was considered a built-in incentive for monopoly-swapping rather than continued competition.

Introduction of Universal Service
Originally, the term Univseral Service meant the interconnection of the systems (Bell and independents) into a unified, non-fragmented service. This would allow all subscribers in a given geographic area to call all other subscribers with a single subscription.

As the telephone system grew, however, the idea of Universal Service changed to mean a social policy of universal telephone entitlement. The Communications Act of 1934 crystallized this telecommunications policy. It's goal was "the provision of universal service to every citizen in the country." Telephones began to be viewed as a social necessity that should be provided to all.

Present Day Impact

Although the Bell System was broken up in 1984, monopolies still remain, although more in the form of local monopolies than national monopolies. The local competition provisions of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 addressed the question: What are the appropriate interconnection and unbundling rules for promoting efficient competition and maintaining universal telephone service? Legislatures are still trying to figure out how to balance providing universal service to all and the problem of monopolies.

Universal Service
Today, universal service means that regulators should implement public policies which provide all households, no matter how remote or poor, with access to an affordable set of basic telecommunication services.
This remains a very controversial issue. Some people view basic telecommunication services as more than just a telephone in every home; it implies that a universal communications infrastructure contributes to national unity and equality of opportunity - it's an expression of liberal egalitarianism, like universal schooling, literacy, or voting rights. However, many question the fairness of providing universal service to everyone.

Telecommunication Towers

On April 16th, 2009, I presented my case study which answered the question “What social and economic forces shape communication infrastructure?” For my case study, I focused on telecommunication towers and the economic and social effects they have. While presenting my case study, I focused on the health concerns (High Intensity Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Exposure and Lead Paint), the location of the towers, and some economic issues (towers being sold to private companies, effect of the towers on housing prices, and some innovations).

The class discussion that followed my case study was mainly about the health concerns related to the cell phone towers. I didn’t exactly state what the main health risks were and who should be concerned with them. There was also a question brought up that was “If these towers are now in church steeples, would the health concerns apply to these cell phone towers as well?” I will start by discussing the main health risks. As I was revisiting this topic, I found this link that stated in the summary section that the study of the health risks EMF exposure was plagued by “limited or inadequate evidence.”

The source that I mentioned in my presentation focused on mainly the workers that repair the towers. These workers are sometimes repairing the towers even while the towers are operating, or sending out the signals, as well as radiation. The source, in the concluding section, states that these workers should have “periodical medical check-ups done by a neurologist, cardiologist, therapist, and ophthalmologist.” This tells me that there are definitely some serious health concerns for the people who work on the towers, while the jury is still out for those who live near a tower. However, because of the intense coverage, the media has portrayed the towers as cancer causing machines and have created a state of fear within the general population.

The issues of cell phone towers in church steeples, which are a rather recent development, have not had enough research on these towers to produce any conclusive studies yet from what I have seen during my research.

Monday, April 20, 2009

Power at Your Fingertips

April 16, 2009 I presented a case study to my Communication 330 class. Representing the business worlds effects on the invention of cell phone generations. Presented to the general public in the early to mid 80's, cell phones have had a drastic impact on our social world as well. Starting with the use of pagers led us into the first generation cell phone. This type of phone could easily be recognized as the 'brick phone', referencing it to the cell phones used by characters in Save by the Bell. Mostly based off of analog communication abilities, this phone only allowed verbal communication through the phone. Moving into the second generation phone brought more connection to the class since it was from a time period we could remember and relate to. With a digital representation in this generation of phones, consumers were not only allowed to transfer voice messages but SMS text messaging as well. GSM was established in eastern countries for this phone and broadband speeds were established at a fast rate as well. Taking a turn into a more current product, the third generation cell phones were able to hit home with pretty much every student in attendance. With this being the cell phone of today, students knew the characteristics such as High band width, digital connection, live video calls, video streaming and understood the concept of this being referred to as the handheld computer. After these past generations were established, we were able to take a stand on understand the fourth generation cell phone.
With our generation being more and more dependent on technology I found the class to be fairly educated on the event of fourth generation cell phones. The new generation will offer mobile HD Television and have a pretty ability of transferring voice data and streamed multimedia concepts. This device will also come with the software LTC, long term communication, meaning that the cell walls will be less important and the connection will carry long without transferring the call to a new cell. Wi-Fi will also play a key role in the upgrade to 4G along with the instillation of 'cloud' features for better connection. With technology quickly changing, I found the expectation of society to keep up is quickly rising as well. The more up to date you are the more professional you are considered to be in the world of business. Below are a few sources I found to be useful while preparing for this presentation. They kept me up to do date with what tomorrow could possible hold in the world of cell phone technology.



Tuesday, April 14, 2009

Who Controls the Network - Privacy and the Internet

My presentation covered issues of privacy and the internet. There is a vast number of ways for your privacy to be invaded on the internet. Your personal information can be obtained by cookies, spyware, bugs, spamming, routing information, social networking sites, unsecured wireless networks, deep packet inspection and even general web search engines. With so many intrusion possibilities to guard against one can never ensure his/her complete privacy online, but should implement as many precautionary techniques to their web behavior as possible to reduce their risk. Awareness of the variety of possible threats is the first step to being safer with your personal information across a largely unregulated medium like the internet.

The question I posed to the class at the conclusion of my presentation was:

Knowing that most internet service providers oppose net neutrality and its ramifications, do you think we will see increased regulation across the internet. Should ISP’s be able to charge users extra or throttle their bandwidth based on their behavior or content accessed on the web? How far in the future do you expect to see this? Do you consider that an invasion of your privacy, or a sincere effort to provide quality services?

Many believe that we will see increased regulation and commercial models of tiered access develop and continue to grow in the near future. At the same time it was stated during discussion that “it seems like a way for companies to make a quick buck,” rather than a benefit to the internet, its users, and the free flow of information. On the other hand the question, “Are there any positive or beneficial uses of deep packet inspection and similar techniques that go against net neutrality rules.” The answer is yes, everything from, filtering content such as child pornography and copyrighted material to protection against adware, spyware and viruses can be achieved with DPI.

As for the question “who controls the network,” my answer would be that it is a combination of the internet service providers and their end users. To me the bigger question at hand is which of those two actually possess more control. Is it the common carriers and ISP’s that provide the physical access to the network, or is it the users themselves who control the flow of information and the many uses of the internet? As long as the internet remains unregulated, then the fight for control between its users and ISP’s will be a present and ever-changing issue.

Monday, April 13, 2009

Who Controls the Network?

            In my presentation I would have presented about how no one single organizations runs or controls the Internet.  Instead the control of the Internet is divided into many different pieces and spread amongst many industries and organizations.  The Internet is partially controlled by Internet Service Providers, such as AOL or MSN, which provide basic Internet connection and also may provide content.  Without the Internet service providers no one would be able to access the Internet, which gives them partial control.  Telecommunications companies have similar roles to Internet service providers, because they too provide service for a fee.  Examples include Verizon and Time Warner.  There are a few Non- Profit organizations that have a substantial amount of power over the network, such as ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers), which is in control of naming domains and addresses.  Other non-profit organizations include the Internet Society and Internet Engineering Task force, which focus on orderly use, development, and the proper evolution of the Internet.  The Government also has a say in running the network due to its authority received from the Patriot Act to monitor citizens Internet activity.  The United States is an early adaptor and creator of the Internet, which is positive, but unfortunately the Internet is now very American oriented and friendly, which is a problem for the worldwide users who are not affluent in English and American Internet.  The UN is concerned with the US domination of the Internet, and discussed the topic at the World Summit on the Information Society.   Another issue dealing with the network is the digital divide, which is the broadening technological gap between whites and minorities, rich and poor, urban and rural.  It is said that inferior Internet access will also mean inferior access to employment and educational opportunity, deepening the cycle of poverty.  This is an issue that must be addressed in the future, as well as the ownership of the network, and privacy of the users.  The Internet is a fairly new invention and still very young.  As the Internet evolves so do the laws, the digital divide, and issues of ownership in hopes that there will be a good solution in the future.  Until then the Internet will continue to be controlled by many different industries on many different levels but the issues of control must be solved in order to better the developing internet, decrease the digital divide, and to decrease American domination of the network.

Monday, April 6, 2009

New Media and Television Ads

My presentation dealt with the effects of new media on televised advertising. I covered various aspects, including a history of the commercial model from 1950s and onward, threats to modern day advertisements from new media sources, the role the internet plays in TV advertisement, and finally ways in which brand name companies are using new media and old media to make effective ads.

One question that was posed was how new media is being used in televised advertising effectively. One way this is happening is through the use of personalized or interactive advertisement. This was defined and some examples were presented. The wager Blizzard Entertainment America made with Ford trucks paid off, as their ad was well received by the audience, mainly because they ran an ad campaign based of strong persuasive theories. The ad was based off of audience generated work, and spawned several more fan based ads that Ford and Blizzard both chose to run on TV. Denny’s Nannerpuss was also shown. The cult like following that formed from the simple TV campaign turned into a very marketable and well liked new media icon.

Brand name companies and American Idol were the topics that concluded the presentation. Coke and Ford have both heavily invested in this show, and their logos and icons are displayed in great multitudes anywhere the American Icon logo is seen. Product placement and reputation were discussed, as well as the effectiveness of pique techniques used by Coke to generate and audience buzz about a new advertising spot.

One question during discussion was over the future of television advertising. I believe that old forms of advertising and newer forms such as online campaigns will continue to be combined into to better meet audience desires in a commercial. I think the audience in the 50s put up with horrible, boring ads because the concept of TV was so revolutionary. In the new millennium though, people are no long impressed simply by the images and demand more entertainment from the ads. I think they want more than just a product display, they desire some sort of entertainment from the ad itself.

Sunday, March 22, 2009


Piracy is a vastly growing problem in the media industry. In the past few years the rate of piracy has increased tremendously due to the fact that media industries are helping make piracy easier to commit through faster and better internet access, software programs that can be installed to computers to pirate movies and technological loopholes in movie discs. The three main types of piracy are optical piracy, camcord piracy, and internet piracy. While internet piracy is the most prevelant because of easy access, all piracy is against the law and is punishable.

During the class discussion a few questions were raised as to 'how is piracy being faught?' One act that was passed in 2005 by President George W. Bush was TAP. Tactics for Auction Piracy was imporant to media industries because it proved to piraters that actions will be taken against them if they continue to break the law. In 2005 the Motion Pictures Association of America; which contains all of the major studios such as Paramount Pictures, Warner Brothers, and a few more, lost over $3.8 billion dollars in the United States alone.

Other questions asked were if piracy would be controlled or would continue to be a growing worldwide problem. Most of the student responses were that it would remain about the same rate it is now. Advances in technology allow hackers, and piraters to quickly find loopholes that the engineers were not ready for. By the time that that loopholes are closed a new one is opened. Students said it is a constant cat and mouse game that would take serious advances in technology to completely stop piraters.

Piracy will continue to be a problem in the near future and it is unknow for how long. The main actions that people can do right now it to not pirate music, movies and other forms of entertainment. The more music and movies that are stolen, the less money those industries have to create new media for our entertainment.

Friday, March 13, 2009

The Academy Awards

On Thursday, 12 March 2009 I presented my case study on the Academy Awards. The Academy Awards are considered to be an icon of American popular culture because they glamorize Hollywood and during this event, actors gather together to recognize and awards their fellow actors. During the presentation I gave an overview of the Academy's history, its structure, as well as the outreach programs it provides, and finalized by discussing how the Academy Awards influence media audiences.

The outreach programs (Media Literacy Program, Visiting Arts Program, and Teacher's Guide Series)utilize the excitement generated by the Academy Awards to reach out to young children and students to teach them about film making, critical thinking, creative skills, and allow them to interact with professional filmmakers. I also discussed the "play along" interactive activity created by the Academy Awards as an effort to reach more people and give them a sense of involvement and connection. Through discussion, we concluded that it was an outreach effort to publicize the Academy Awards and a way for them to adjust to 'new media' by not only utilizing television and computers but cell phones as well.

I also discussed how the Academy Awards bring light to controversial movies. For example Schindler's List is a movie about the Holocaust and the hardships that Jews endured during WWII. The subject of the Holocaust still to tends to be unpopular in some circles but the Oscars it received brought attention to it and people were convinced to see it. The Best Years of Our Lives (1946) was more of an informative movie that brought to light the social issues that veterans faced once returning from war. It depicted their struggles and adjustments to family life, integrating themselves into society, finding employments, and dealing with peacetime and PTSD. It gave the audience a better understanding of veterans and brought courage and inspiration for them.

Not only do the Academy Awards bring light to movies but also solidify the stars' system established in the early movie era. The stars' system is not only used to promote motion pictures but is also used to promote humanitarian causes. Salma Hayek and Angelina Jolie have promoted the cause of helping third world countries. The media follows them through their travels and efforts, convincing the audience to join in their campaign for a better living enviroment for these people. The attention and glamour they gained through the Academy Awards allows them to successfully promote their cause.

The Academy Awards is a much publized glamour function. However, through its educational outreach programs, innovative ways to bring in viewers, and influence it gives its members, it has and will continue to yield a great amount of influence over the public.

Monday, March 9, 2009

1st Amendment & Radio

In the early days of the radio, the FCC didn't have to regulate much because of the large presence of self censorship. The FCC did not really have a problem with radio until it came to the 1960's when rock bands started pushing the envelope if you will. Sexual content and profanity started to show up in these songs and the FCC had to step in and set limits to what could be broadcast. Then again in the 70's, the FCC was pushed further with George Carlin's "7 Dirty Words" broadcast that brought quite an up rise. One of the more prominent events of this time involved Tipper Gore, Al Gore's wife. She lead a group pushing for the requirement of a warning label on explicit material. With all good evolution, things have come anther step further with the rise of the "shock jocks."

One of the most widely known of the shock jocks is one, Howard Stern. A shock jocks material consist of material that most steer away from, for multiple reasons, controversial, possible/likely fining by the FCC, in fact when Howard Stern was with a company known as Infinity, he accumulated fines upwards of 1.2 million dollars, for failure to restrain Mr. Stern. Now if you like the material or not, the numbers don't lie, when Howard Stern worked for CBS he had three main advertisers, Anheuser -- Busch, Cingular, and Toyota, when Mr. Stern was fired from CBS after his broadcast entitled "Beastiality Dial-A-Date," he took all three advertisers with him to Infinity, even after the companies were pleaded with to stop their loyalty to this shock jock. Then when you start factoring in the fact that, even though the FCC has some hefty fines, they are outweighed by the profit coming in from the station. After Mr. Stern left CBS, the 1st quarter revenue slipped by six percent and operating income fell fourteen percent. Ratings dropped from first within adult males 18-34 to fourteenth, and first with adult males 25-54 to seventeenth, now even if you don't agree with the topics that this man, and others like him, discuss, they are bringing in lots of listeners and money.

Now days Howard Stern has found a new venue, satellite radio, currently there are not restrictions on shock jocks here, this means more revenue for the radio station and less hassle with the FCC. Howard Stern was also offered the largest contract for a radio broadcaster through Sirus, the satellite company that originally brought in Mr. Stern, but has since merged with XM Radio, the only other competitor. Even with this merger, this alliance is just shy of filing for bankruptcy, which may make you wounder what will happen to Howard Stern if that happens, we can only wait and see. One thing is for sure though, if the FCC wishes to get a tighter grip on what is being broadcast over the airwaves, they need to have punishments that are more savvier than what is in place now.

Sunday, March 8, 2009

XM Radio, Sirius Radio and "The Merger"

Back in 1992, the FCC gave way to a spectrum in the “S” band for nationwide broadcasting of satellite based Digital Audio Radio Service (DARS). At the time, only four companies applied for the license to access the particular band, two of which were granted in 1997. Then, in September of 2001, XM Satellite Radio (formerly American Mobile Radio) was the first satellite radio company to “test the field.” With the success that XM showed, a second satellite radio company, Sirius Radio, made the charge and tried to become a big contender in the market.
XM Radio offered roughly 140 channels ranging from various music channels, sport, news, and entertainment channels, to play-by-play sport channels. A big marketing strategy that they used was to make sure to give their subscribers a vast array of options of XM receivers to choose from. Their big three were: the plug-n-play receiver, the boom box style receiver, and the standard in-dash receiver. XM was also the first to market their product in airplanes and car rental companies. I think this was a very good idea because of the amount of people that travel, just on a given day in the United States.
Sirius Radio entered the satellite radio business with a little different marketing mindset. They were more concerned with getting new customers and “switching customers” through the signing of big names. Some of these names included Martha Stewart, ESPN radio, and E! Entertainment. Although their marketing strategy proved to be effective, they still trailed XM in just about every profitable category. Then Sirius introduced what is known as “backseat TV.” This gave all Sirius Radio subscribers access to the three major “child networks” which included Cartoon Network, Nickelodeon, and the Disney Channel.
With the advent of the mp3 player, then the iPod, then the iPhone came the decrease of subscribers to satellite radio. The two major companies saw a tremendous decline in profit in this time and they had to act quickly to prevent any more future losses. What they decided to do was to merge in hopes of minimizing their losses and maximizing their strengths. Although there were many negative factors associated with this merger, the FCC finally approved, stating that it was in the public’s “best interest.” Overall, the merger was beneficial to both companies, XM Sirius Radio is still losing money every day and will have to act fast to get the company back on its feet.
So how exactly has older media served as a template for a Wireless Culture? I believe that every sort of form of entertainment has based its strategy from how radio first started. This includes everything from broadcasting, to marketing, to sponsorships to name a few. Radio started out as a huge piece of equipment that was hard to transport to a device so small but so developed, that it can be programmed, specialized, plugged in to cigarette lighters to boom boxes, and now heard via the internet.

Tuesday, March 3, 2009

Limits On Free Speech And The First Amendment

The First Amendment establishes restrictions on Congress concerning freedom of speech, press, and religion, and the right to a peaceful assembly. For the purposes of this class the First Amendment inquires that congress cannot restrict freedom of speech and freedom of the press. So what does freedom of speech actually mean? According to our textbook Media Now, “freedom of speech is the idea that speech and media content should be free from government restriction” (432). However there are two limits on freedom of speech to which the First Amendment does not protect against; libelous statements and plagiarism.

A libelous statement is a written form of defamation that consists of false information that is damaging to a person’s reputation. Peter Zenger, one of the first writers to be accused of libel, actually won his case against the British Governor of New York because the court ruled that if the statement written is true, then the statement cannot libelous.

Now, plagiarism consists of using another’s created work without giving the author recognition or passing someone else’s work as your own. Jayson Blair wrote for the New York Times and was forced to resign after he was convicted of plagiarism, using fake or made up witnesses to back up arguments in his articles. He also passed off other author’s works as his own. “36 of the 73 reports [he] filed” were somehow falsified (Hamilton). The fine for plagiarism can be anywhere from making an ‘F’ in the course to being expelled from your school or university. However, in some cases, plagiarism can be considered a felony and can be punishable up to a $250,000 fine and up to ten years in prison.

It is crucial that we as students know our boundaries in the media world so one day we are not accused of any of this unlawful activity.

Hamilton, James. (2004) New York Times stays strong after turbulent year. Campaign UK, 28, 15-15.

Hoskins, Michael W. Libel Case Could Set New Standard. (2009, January 7-20). The Indiana Lawyer, Vol. 19-22.

LaRose, Robert, & Straubahaar, Joseph. (2008). Media Now: Understanding Media, Culture, and Technology. (5th ed.). CA: Thomson Learning.Inc.

Monday, March 2, 2009

The Associated Press

I have always followed the news rather closely, and despite frequently noticing the small print declaring various articles "AP articles" or that the reporter was an "AP Reporter," I had never really stopped to consider the vast influence the organization had. The AP is global, with branches in almost every major country and sources which rival those of any national intelligence agency. While researching the AP for this presentation, two main points really became clear to me. 

First, it became extremely clear that organizations such as the AP and its competitors (Reuters, etc) are a double edged sword. While the act of pooling resources and information allows the individual consumer to have access to much more news on a global perspective, it also tends to flavor much of the news we receive with the perceptions of those agencies. If an educated consumer takes the time to gather their information from multiple sources these problems are largely mitigated, but for every educated consumer there are two who blindly follow whatever they see in print (opinion, not statistic). 

The second thing I really began to understand was the role technology played in the news media. All news agencies are out to make a profit, and they all strive to do so by providing the most accurate and up-to-date information to their consumers in the fastest and most convenient manner possible. This drive lead to the implementation of the newest and most cutting-edge technologies, as well as the creation of media conglomerates like the AP. This drive can be seen today in the growing emphasis organizations such as the AP are putting on "new media," despite the discontent it is causing amongst the major newspapers who provide 49% of the AP's annual income. If the AP is willing to risk their single largest source of income for new media, it clearly must be what they perceive as the wave of the future.

Monday, February 23, 2009

Globalization of media products and industry

Globalization of Film
The Globalization of Media, especially film, is a relatively young section of media. Although films started to go worldwide around the World War I era, they were nothing compared to the films we have today. Today’s films are mainly for an entertainment purposes which have help to create the so called “Monopoly” of the film business by the United States. Within the classroom we discussed our own opinions to having an “International Enforcement Agency” to help protect the copyright laws that they producers have of their movies outside the boarders of the United States. For instance I brought up the fact that the costs would outweigh the benefits and possibly hurt the global and individual economies overseas.
Another question that was brought up to the class was their opinion of weather the United States could be seen as a monopoly within the film business. As we started discussing most of us would answer the question as yes from the information presented within the slides. Along with the percentage of films played in Europe and the average amount of money spent of films, people could also see the resemblance of a monopoly within the Motion Pictures Association of America (MPAA).
As for answering the question; ‘How does Globalization shape media products and industry?’ I would have to say that it depends on the economy that the individual lives in and his or her personal incentives. With a strong economy the globalization of media products and industry are relatively good with a positive outcome. As for economies that cannot produce these kinds of films and have a weak economic market these products are often copied and sold within a black market with no returns back to its economy or the producers of the product. As for personal incentives, it would depend entirely on how the person believes and thinks about globalization.

Tuesday, February 17, 2009

Are You Still Down With FCC?

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is in charge of regulating television, telecommunications and maintaining telecommunication equipment. They also interpreted and enforce telecommunication legislation made by congress. In addition to that they also are in charge of giving out and renewing broadcasting licenses.

According to there are seven bureaus that make up the FCC. They include the Consumer & Governmental Affairs Bureau, Enforcement Bureau, International Bureau, Media Bureau, Wireless Telecommunications, Public Safety & Homeland Security Bureau, and Wireline Competition Bureau.

I was surprised that I actually learned something while I was presenting. When I brought up the Consumer & Governmental Affairs Bureau and that they were the ones who were advertising the digital television converter box Dr. Campbell asked me if I knew when the switch was going to occur, but all I knew was that it was going to happen sometime in February. Well it turns out that it was supposed to happen on the 12th of February, the day I was presenting, but due to lack of funding the date was pushed back to June.

I am also glad that during the discussion that I was able to answer all the questions that were pressed upon me. It defiantly reflected how well I researched the FCC when Dr. Campbell asked me how the administration positions of the FCC were filled, and I was able to answer in full confidence that they were appointed by the President and confirmed by congress also that only four administrators could be from one party.

I enjoyed learning that the FCC was not just a bunch of power hungry, uptight, whistle blowers, who get enraged by anything that makes them, feel in the slightest, uncomfortable. They try to operate for the good of the public by giving out important information in times of disaster, and make sure that broadcasting is kept orderly by giving licenses with assigned frequencies so that stations don’t overlap each other. 

Monday, February 16, 2009

1996 Telecommunications Act

Last Thursday, I presented a case study on the 1996 Telecommunications Act. The 1996 Telecommunications Act was passed to deregulate the media industry to make it easier for small companies to come into the big media playing field, and increase competition to create newer forms of technology. Even though the government's good intentions were there, essentially, their plan failed. Media monopolies, such as AT&T, decided to buy out smaller companies, which lead to less competition in the media industry and fewer choices for the consumers. I presented background information on what the 1996 Telecommunications Act is, the effects and problems of the law, how it affects consumers, and how the government can change the law to make it relevant to the new media.

Prior to my presentation, I knew the class had heard about the 1996 Telecommunications Act because Dr. Campbell had mentioned it the class period before. The class discussion didn't go exactly the way I had hoped. I knew it was early in the morning, but I would have liked to hear the opinions of my classmates. I feel that our week's discussion question, Law & Policy: Who Controls the Media is something everyone should be concerned about. I touched on the fact that even though the government deregulated the media industry, parts of the media industry, such as the Internet, were still being regulated. Internet regulation does have a purpose; government Internet regulation is supposed to protect consumers from cybercrimes, identity theft, illegal downloading, online gambling, and domestic acts of terrorism. The government also regulates the Internet so children aren't exposed to obscene and indecent materials. However, the government is not allowed to regulate pornography, because adults should be allowed to view the materials they want to.

The main point I wanted to make with my presentation was the 1996 Telecommunications Act was intended to help the consumers by giving them more choices within the media industry, but it ended up hurting the consumer by giving them less choices and leaving them with higher prices. Until researching this Act, I had no idea how the government could affect the way I purchase cable or Internet service. I think it is vital that we, as students, make sure of how the government plays a role in our lives, and the negative or positive effects their policies can have on us.

Tuesday, February 10, 2009

Convergence Creates Stress in New Media Markets

Convergence in New Media doesn't just mash up more features into new devices, but effectively mashes markets together as well. As evidenced by the PSP (and, as someone commented, the iPhone as well), emerging markets are often frustrated by differing views between consumers and media companies. Furthermore, certain recent laws, most notably the DMCA, compound those troubles.

And currently, the battle, if you would call it that, between Sony and the PSP hacking community, has been tit for tat, with Sony releasing new updates to fix exploits, and the hacking community finding new ones nearly as fast.

Following the explanation of Sony's business model for the PSP, much of the class agreed that there was significant risk in allowing consumers unlimited access to the capabilities of the device. However, I also showed the significant gap between what Sony authorized its device to do, and what could be achieved with a little ingenuity.

Of course, focusing on the topic of media convergence, we also looked at a brief example from Nokia, the makers of the first camera phone: by offering functionality in their phones that duplicated that of inexpensive cameras, they outsold all camera makers combined. (Though, this was by selling phones, not cameras!) Thus, convergence can have unpredictable effects in new markets and old ones as well.

We went on to discuss whether Sony's business model was a good one. Most disagreed, saying it would have worked well 5 or 10 years ago, but today it's very risky. However, when asked who was right: consumers for hacking the PSP to function as they liked, or Sony for insisting on the force of law, and attempting to undermine this behavior with firmware updates, the consensus was less clear. Some suggested that each was doing something wrong, and others siding with consumer's rights. No one suggested that Sony was entirely justified in attempting to control access to and usage of features in the PSP.

Perhaps more interesting, though, was the fact that several students were still positively in favor of obtaining all their digital content through unquestionably legal channels. I think this shows that consumers are certainly willing to pay for ease-of-use, as well as the peace-of-mind that comes from knowing that they are on unshakable ethical ground.

To conclude the case study, I participated in a short roundtable discussion on the topic of media convergence and how it effects New Media markets.
In response to the round table question of what I think is most important in New Media markets, I pointed to the strengths of new media: decentralized distribution and consumer creativity. Both of these areas have been historically hard to monetize, but I believe that therein lies the future of media.